​Cross Sector Collaboration: Partner

These case studies demonstrate a multi-partner approach to emergency management for critical infrastructure.

Central Coast Local Emergency Management Committee (LEMC) 

The Central Coast Council is located on the coast of NSW, approximately 76 kilometres north of the Sydney Central Business District (CBD), and about 80 kilometres south of Newcastle. The Central Coast Council was established on 12 May 2016 by the amalgamation of Gosford City and Wyong Shire Councils. The shire covers an area of 1,680km2, and has a resident population of over 335,000 people.

Above: Office of Emergency Management staff from the Disaster Welfare team.

The Central Coast Local Emergency Management Committee (LEMC) has an active and strong representation of Critical Infrastructure (CI) providers which has been stable and consistent over time. Stable membership has facilitated the development of professional working relationships and engendered a genuine interest by CI providers to actively engage in emergency management.
Infrastructure providers regularly contribute to the delivery of short presentations on topical issues within their area of responsibility at LEMC meetings. They work collaboratively with the LEMC on community engagement initiatives, undertake joint planning, and contribute to the development and review of the Central Coast LEMC Emergency Management Plan.
CI providers also often participate in emergency management exercises. This has strengthened professional relationships and cross-agency collaboration and led to a greater understanding of each agencies’ strengths and capabilities.

During times of emergency, infrastructure providers supply a liaison officer to reside in the Emergency Operations Centre, helping to reduce response and recovery times and provide significant benefit for the community. The partnerships that were created during planning and preparation, create great benefits for the people and businesses of the Central Coast during response and recovery from an emergency event.

Auckland Lifelines Group 

In New Zealand, lifeline utilities provide infrastructure services to the community. These include water, wastewater, transport, energy and telecommunications.
The Auckland Lifelines Group (ALG) was established in 2000 and is made up of lifelines organisations in the Auckland region of New Zealand. The mission of the ALG is to identify measures and co-ordinate efforts to reduce the vulnerability of Auckland’s lifelines to hazard events and to improve service reinstatement after a disaster. It is a voluntary organisation and whilst not a legal entity in itself, the ALG operates under the auspices of the Auckland Council, which administers funds and enters into contracts for services on its behalf.  The ALG does not take an operational role in an emergency; its role is primarily focussed on risk reduction and readiness.
The Auckland Lifelines group works with infrastructure providers to help mitigate risks. 

Previous projects have included:

  • Assessing the criticality of Auckland’s lifelines services infrastructure.
  • Mapping network and asset level interconnections between infrastructure types.
  • Assisting with the production of advice posters in relation to natural hazards such as volcanic ash fall.
Strong cross-sector partnerships allow for better collective action before an emergency, but also better response in the event of a disaster. 

UK Local Resilience Forums

A Local Resilience Forum (LRF) is a multi-agency partnership formed by key emergency responders and specific supporting agencies under the requirements of the UK Civil Contingencies Act (CCA) 2004.
Local Resilience Forums are based on police areas and are made up of representatives from local public services (e.g. emergency services, local government, the National Health Service (NHS), the Environment Agency and others). These agencies are known as Category 1 Responders and have defined legislative duties under the CCA 2004.

LRFs are supported by organisations known as Category 2 responders, such as the Highways Agency and public utility companies. These organisations have a legislative responsibility to co-operate and share relevant information with Category 1 organisations through the LRF. The table below illustrates Category 1 and 2 Responders who form part of the London LRF.

​Category 1 Responders

​​Category 2 Responders

Emergency Services

  • British Transport Police 
  • City of London Police 
  • London Ambulance Service 
  • London Fire Brigade
  • Maritime Coastguard Agency 
  • Metropolitan Police Service 

Strategic London Government 

  • Greater London Authority 
  • Local Authorities x 3

Health Bodies 

  • Acute Trusts 
  • NHS England (London) (also representing Clinical Commissioning Groups
  • NHS Provider organisations
  • Public Health England

Government Agencies 

  • Environment Agency 
  • Health and Safety Executive 
  • Met Office 

Other Responders

  • Airwave 
  • Department for Communities and Local Government  
  • Defence  
  • Voluntary sector  
  • Business sector 
  • Faith sector


  • Affinity Water 
  • BT  
  • Cable and Wireless
  • Colt Communications
  • Essex & Suffolk Water
  • Level 3 Communications
  • National Grid 
  • O2 Telefonica 
  • Scottish and Southern Energy 
  • SGN 
  • Sutton & East Surrey Water 
  • Telehouse Europe
  • Thames Water Utilities Limited 
  • Telefonica 
  • UK Power Networks
  • Vodafone

Transport Providers

  • Transport for London
  • Network Rail Crossrail
  • HS2 
  • Heathrow Airport 
  • London City Airport
  • Highways England
  • National Air Traffic Service 
  • Port of London Authority
  • Abellio Greater Anglia
  • c2c 
  • Chiltern East Midland Trains 
  • Eurostar 
  • Grand Central  
  • GTR (Greater Thameslink Railway) 
  • Heathrow Express 
  • Hull Trains
  • London Midland 
  • South West Trains
  • Southeastern 
  • Southern 
  • Virgin Trains

Government Agencies 

  • Health and Safety Executive 
  • Air Accident Investigation Branch 
  • Rail Accident Investigation Branch
  • Marine Accident Investigation Branch
Table 5: Members of the London Local Resilience Forum 

The UK LRF model provides a good example of how critical infrastructure providers can access a forum to consult, collaborate and disclose information with first responders to facilitate planning and response to emergencies and produce a Community Risk Register. 

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